Raw Food Explained: Life Science
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3. Preparation Of Foods Without Cooking
3.1.1 Fresh Fruits
Most fresh fruits should be served whole after scrubbing under running water. What can rival the appeal to the eye and to the taste than a bowl or tray of beautiful, colorful, fragrant whole fruit?
Apples, pears, peaches, nectarines, apricots and plums should be served whole, with sharp knives for peeling and cutting if necessary or desired. The fruit should be eaten unpeeled whenever possible, but if fruit is not organically grown, it is a difficult choice.
Grapes and cherries, of course, require no preparation other than washing.
Some citrus fruit is easy to peel (tangerines, murcotts, mandarins, tangelos, temples). Other citrus may be cut at the table. No sugar on grapefruit! (Nor other sweetening.)
Berries should be served whole. Serve strawberries with caps and stems attached. No sugar! (Nor any other sweetening.) Fruit that is not sweet enough to eat without added sweeteners is not ripe enough to eat.
Serve persimmons whole—fully ripe, soft and luscious. I like to cut this fruit in half and spoon away from the skin. My husband, Lou, just bites into the fruit, discarding the skin as he eats.
Nature provided bananas with a wonderful coat, protective and easy to remove—no problems there. Serve them golden, brown-freckled and whole.
Cut ripe, buttery avocados in half at the table and eat with a spoon out of the half (or quarter) shell. If you want to peel the avocados, quarter them and remove the skins from each quarter. Serve the sectibus on a platter, or arrange them on lettuce leaves or other salad vegetables. Serve fresh, soft, ripe figs whole.
Serve delightful, emerald kiwi fruit whole. Cut it in half at the table and spoon out of the half shell.
Fresh litchi fruit is easy to peel at the table. Loquats require no peeling.
Florida papayas are sometimes very large. Cut in wedges and remove seeds immediately before serving. I have seen some people eating the seeds of the papaya, and heard them stoutly maintain that the seeds are “loaded” with nutrients and should not be discarded. I believe the taste of papaya seeds is ample evidence that they are not intended to be eaten. The plethora of nutrients which they undoubtedly contain are intended for the fruit which the seeds are programmed to produce.
Just-right ripe mangos are a treat any way you serve them. They can be cut in half, slicing over the large flat seed on both sides and eaten with a spoon. They can be peeled and sliced, but don’t waste whatever clings to the peel and seed, though you may have to hang over the sink to eat it.
Joy Gross demonstrated (at the American Natural Hygiene Society national conventions) an attractive way to serve mangos. With a sharp paring knife; score the flesh of the halved mangos in cubes, without cutting through the skin. Invert the two halves (turn them inside out). Beautiful! And delicious!
Melons, of course, will have to be cut immediately before serving. Small melons may be served whole.
Prepare pineapple immediately before serving in the following manner: Cut a thin slice from the bottom. Cut in quarters lengthwise, either leaving the top on as a decoration, or removing it. Prepare each quarter as a separate serving by separating the flesh from the skin with a sharp knife and slicing the remaining wedge into segments. Serve on the rind (pineapple boats). Serve with forks for removal of the segments and serrated grapefruit spoons for scraping out any flesh remaining on the rind. Don’t put the rind to your mouth—use a spoon. The eyes of the rind are razor sharp and can cut your lips, mouth and tongue.
Pomegranates may be served whole, and may either be cut and eaten in sections, cutting into segments as you eat, or the juice may be sucked out through a carefully punched hole (look out, it’ll spurt all over you) after carefully kneading it until it is entirely soft. Don’t be too rough, you may inadvertently break it open.
3.1.2 Dried Fruits
Dried fruit may require some advance preparation.
Dates and raisins may be presumed to be clean enough to eat as they come from a sealed package. For those who doubt this, a quick rinse just before eating may allay their misgivings.
Dried figs are usually soft enough to eat without preparation. Rinse, if desired. If figs are hard, they may be soaked in distilled water for several hours, or over night.
Dried apricots and peaches are greatly improved by overnight soaking. In fact, unsulphured apricots and peaches are almost inedible unless they are soaked.
Dried apples are very tasty—not too sweet. Soaking makes them too mushy.
Dried prunes, cherries and pears may be used either way—as they are, or soaked.
Dried bananas are excellent as they come from the package—soaking is not necessary or desirable.
Dried litchi fruit needs no preparation—just crack open the nut-like outer skin and find the raisin-like fruit inside.
Dried carob pods are sometimes too dry to be really palatable, but usually are soft enough to chew on. I have not tried soaking them.
3.1.3 Fruit Recipes (Without Cooking)
Ideally, recipes (especially for fruit) are not necessary nor desirable. We know that many people will want fruit recipes for a variety of reasons:
- A nostalgic yearning for “mixtures”.
- For variety.
- As a replacement for junk foods (to satisfy “cravings”).
- A desire to prepare something “fancy” or “convenient” to serve guests.
- For reluctant family members.
- For children (of any age).
These might also work out better for parties or groups of people, because they are perhaps more economical, more convenient, or more “liberal” for conventional friends.
Acid Fruit: Oranges, pineapple, strawberries and kiwi fruit. This can be prepared an hour or two in advance to serve to guests. The juice from the oranges should keep the other fruit from drying out or discoloring. Use whole strawberries, fairly large pieces of fresh pineapple, and orange sections. Serve slices of kiwi fruit alongside—don’t put the kiwi fruit into the salad. Or use the decorative slices of kiwi fruit as a garnish.
This salad can be served to luncheon guests, along with nuts or avocado along with a salad bowl of romaine lettuce, buttercrunch lettuce and celery. (Of course, these same foods could be served more Hygienically by putting out bowls of oranges and strawberries, platters of pineapple boats and kiwi fruit halves, along with the bowls of greens and platters of avocados or nuts if desired.)
Other Acid Fruit Combinations: Winesap, Jonathan or other tart apples. Put cubes of mild cheese on toothpicks and arrange in a circle on each apple. (Or just serve trays of apples and trays of avocados, nuts or cheese.) Serve with bowls of lettuce and celery.
Oranges, avocados and romaine lettuce—this combination is an excellent meal any time of the day.
Subacid and Sweet Fruit: Combine berries (blackberries, raspberries, etc.—not strawberries) or dark sweet cherries or dark purple grapes with two or three of the following: sliced papayas, peaches, nectarines, apricots, sweet plums, apples, pears.
If this can be prepared immediately before serving to guests, arrange fruits attractively on romaine lettuce leaves, either on platters or individual service plates.
If it must be prepared an hour or two in advance, put together as a fruit salad, and moisten with apple, cherry or grape juice. For this purpose, you may have, to use bottled juice from a health food store, which usually does not contain additives, and will be of quite good taste and quality, although, of course, usually pasteurized. Or add dried soaked cherries or apricots and the juice in which they have been soaked.
This fruit salad can be served with, ripe Japanese persimmons, whole ripe bananas (or you can add sliced bananas to the fruit salad just before serving), and either avocados on the half or quarter shell or platters of dates, figs, raisins or other dried fruit. Also set out a salad bowl of two varieties of lettuce and some celery.
3.1.4 Papaya with Subacid Fruit Salad
Fill halves of large papayas with subacid fruit salad for a party buffet. Or fill wedges of large papayas or smaller papaya halves with subacid fruit salad for individual servings.
3.1.5 Papaya, Avocado and Apple Salad
Arrange wedges of papaya, avocado and apple (sweet or tart) in a circle on a bed of romaine or Boston lettuce.
3.1.6 Party Melon
A very attractive way of serving melon buffet style with less of the mess of rinds is to cut open and shape a watermelon as a basket with a handle. That is, instead of cutting it in half, make the cuts lengthwise a little short of the halfway mark, to leave a handle-like section about three inches wide.
Melon balls can be made of the red flesh, but a better way is to cut small wedges and arrange them in the watermelon basket, along with wedges of several other varieties of melon, such as honeydew, casaba, cantaloupe, etc. Don’t mix any other fruit in the watermelon basket. Instead, provide bowls and trays of other varieties of fresh fruit for those who don’t wish to partake of the melon, or for those who sometimes mix melon with other fruit at the same meal.
This is excellent for an afternoon reception or evening party.
3.1.7 Other Entertaining “Tricks” with Fruit
(Sometimes combined with other uncooked foods)
Although the following are not cooked, their nutritional value has been substantially impaired by blending, freezing, etc. These recipes are provided as alternatives to conventional cakes, pies, puddings, ice creams and other desserts.
Compote or Pudding: Soak dried figs (or dried apricots) overnight. Remove stems and blend with the soak water. Add fresh (or frozen) bananas and blend. If too thick, add distilled water—if not thick enough, add more bananas. Serve topped with sliced bananas. The fig pudding will be quite sweet, the apricot pudding less sweet. This may also be made by blending bananas with any other subacid or sweet fruit. Keep very cold until served. This may be served with fresh subacid or sweet fruit (not acid fruit or protein).
Apricot-Prune Whip: Soak dried apricots and pitted prunes overnight. Blend the next day with the soak water. Serve plain or with sliced bananas.
Frozen Banana Treats: Break ripe bananas in halves or thirds. Dip in carob syrup (carob powder mixed with distilled water) and then roll in grated coconut, and freeze. These may be eaten without thawing—they do not freeze hard. Remove from freezer about ten minutes before eating.
Raw Applesauce: Wash, quarter and core sweet juicy apples (do not remove skins). Put in blender a few pieces at a time with a small amount of apple or grape juice. Other fruits maybe combined with the apples. This should be prepared immediately before serving, to keep color and flavor, or keep very cold until served.
Banana “Ice Cream”: Whenever you have a surplus of ripe bananas, peel and freeze them while in tightly-closed plastic bags. They may be converted to “ice cream” by putting them through a Champion juicer (using the homogenizing blank instead of the juicing screen); or in a blender. The Champion juicer method is preferable. The blender method may require a small amount of liquid to get it started. Other frozen or fresh fruit may be combined with the bananas (peaches, cherries—not strawberries).
3.2.1 Shelled vs. Unshelled
Ideally, nuts should be served in the shell, with nutcrackers, picks and bowls for debris. Some people prefer the convenience of shelled nuts, and, if they are purchased fresh, in season, and properly stored, I must admit to their many advantages—especially in the case of the hard-shelled varieties.
Pecans, almonds, walnuts and Filberts are easy to shell, but the quality of the shelled varieties is more uniform. Shelled nuts, of course, take up less space, and are, therefore, easier to store. Shelled nuts are easier to serve, easier to eat, and there is no debris to clear from the table (and usually the floor, as well).
Pistachios in the shell (whenever available unsalted, which is not often) should be shelled as you eat them. They are so easy to shell that there is no excuse for buying them shelled, unless you just can’t find any unsalted, in the shell. Interesting note: Dr. Shelton says that, unlike most other protein foods, pistachios are non acid-forming (alkaline-forming when digested).
Indian (monkey) nuts are tedious to shell. Pignolias (without shells) have a taste similar to that of Indian nuts.
Sunflower seeds are available in or out of the shell. They are tedious to shell, usually done with the teeth.
3.2.2 Shelling Suggestions
Special nut crackers are available which simplify the opening of hard-shelled nuts like Brazils, hickories and macadamias. Black walnuts are a special problem and usually must be opened with a heavy hammer on a large stone. I have heard it suggested that black walnuts be well wrapped and laid in the driveway, so that the car could be run over the package. A vise might be the best solution for cracking black walnuts.
Another suggestion for cracking hard-shelled nuts appeared in Organic Gardening magazine. The suggestion is to soak them for ten or fifteen minutes in a hot (or boiling) water bath prior to cracking. If they have been dried and stored for several weeks, sprinkle with water and place with a damp cloth in a tight container for twelve to twenty-four, hours before cracking. This will also soften the nutmeats for removal in larger pieces.
3.2.3 Blanched Almonds
Most almonds should be blanched, as their brown skins contain a strong astringent (prussic acid). Almonds which do not have a bitter taste are relatively safe to consume in limited quantities, but it is still better to remove the skins.
To blanch, put almonds in a large strainer with a handle. Dip in boiling water for about one minute; then dip in cool water. If this does not loosen the skins sufficiently, repeat the process. Skins should slip off easily.
If the almonds are not bitter, and it is not convenient to blanch them at the particular time, the skins may be partially scraped off with a sharp knife. You might also like to scrape some of the brown skin off filberts or Brazils, which may improve the taste, though these skins are not toxic. Dr. Shelton recommends removing the skins of Brazil nuts.
Although most nuts are acid in metabolic reaction, Ford Heritage and other references list almonds as being alkaline in metabolic reaction. Dr. Shelton (The Hygienic System, Volume II, Orthotrophy, p. 147) disagrees, and says that almonds are definitely acid-forming, although not so much so as animal proteins. The comparative degrees of acidity of nuts with animal proteins are: walnuts (one of the most acid nuts) 8; chicken, 11.2; beef, 9.8; eggs, 12.
The only nuts Dr. Shelton calls alkaline-forming are the pistachios. Although the skin of the almond contains prussic acid, and should be removed, Dr. Shelton recommends it as one of the finest of nuts.
3.2.4 Ground Nuts and Nut Butters
Sometimes, dental, digestive or other problems may necessitate the preparation of ground nuts or nut butters—or these might be needed for young children. Children should learn to chew their nuts (thoroughly) at as early an age as possible.
Ground Nuts are quite dry. If they are to be used, it may help to use a half grapefruit along with a serving of ground nuts. Squeeze some of the juice over the ground nuts, and roll some of the grapefruit sections in the nuts. This results in quite a palatable meal.
Another possible way to use ground nuts is to eat with whole strawberries, dipping each bite of strawberry into the ground nuts.
Nut Butters: To make nut butters, grind the nuts in nut mill or blender a little longer (beyond the ground nut stage). This produces an oilier mixture which can be patted into a butter with a spoon. The longer and finer you grind the nuts, the oilier they will be. If necessary, add a very small amount of oil after removing from the grinder. Sesame oil (buy cold-pressed) is a pleasant-tasting and more stable oil.
It would be better to make nut butters without the use of added oil. Try a tiny amount of distilled water instead, and see how you like it. Almond, pecan or sesame butter may require a little oil (or water). Cashew butter or peanut butter are oily enough without it. (Peanuts are not really nuts, but are starchy proteins, similar to legumes. Neither are cashews really nuts, being the pistils of cashew apples.)
Brazil nut butter is too oily by itself, but mixes well if ground with walnuts. The taste of each is improved by the combination.
Nuts ‘n’ Seeds Butter: Sunflower seeds and sesame seeds have an excellent taste when used whole, but, somehow, they are less tasty when ground into butter. They combine well in a nuts ‘n’ seeds butter. Use one cup of nuts (any kind except cashews or peanuts), one-half cup of sunflower seeds and one-half cup of sesame seeds. Grind together. A very small amount of oil (or water) may be necessary.
Nut and seed butters may be served on celery strips, lettuce leaves, sweet pepper slices, cucumber slices or other nonstarchy vegetables, or they may be eaten with a spoon.
3.2.5 Nut Milk
(Sometimes used for infants or for special problems.)
2 cups water
1/2 cup nuts
Blend as thoroughly as possible. If this is to be used for an infant, it may be necessary to strain it through cheesecloth.
3.3 Coconuts (Classified as Starchy Protein)
To open a coconut, drive a clean large nail through two of the three “eyes” or soft spots, and drain off the liquid. The liquid may be filtered through filter paper (coffee filters are fine) to remove any bits of husk, and it may be drunk immediately or stored in the refrigerator a short time, not more than a day or two. The shell may be cracked with a hatchet or hammer, or in a vise. If the coconut is placed in the freezer for an hour or so before cracking (after removing the liquid), it will crack and come away from the shell more readily.
Break up the meat in small pieces and eat out of hand. The pieces may be stored a short time in the coconut liquid or in water (not more than a day or two).
Peel the pieces before eating if you have trouble with tough skins. Coconut maybe grated if used shortly after preparing. Grated coconut may be used in salads.
Coconut is sometimes used with sweet fruits. (See recipe for nondairy coconut carob ice cream.) While coconut with sweet fruit is not an ideal combination, it seems to work out fairly well, in most cases. Don’t use coconut with nuts or with acid or subacid fruits.
Unlike most nuts, coconuts are alkaline in metabolic reaction. Coconut oil, unlike other vegetable fats, is naturally highly saturated.
The only other saturated vegetable fat is palm oil, which you will find included in the labeling of many packaged products. The label usually says “one or more of the following oils has been used in the preparation of this product: corn oil, cottonseed oil, palm oil….” So it is impossible to tell which oil has actually been used. Palm oil, like coconut oil, is highly saturated.
The fact that coconuts contain saturated fat is not a contraindication for their use as food. This information, however, is of value in planning a diversified Hygienic diet. Saturated animal fats are not recommended. Fresh coconut is an excellent food.
3.3.1 Coconut Milk
Some people who find coconut meat difficult to chew may enjoy using this palatable coconut milk occasionally.
Blend two cups warm distilled water with one-half cup fresh peeled coconut, and cool in refrigerator. Blend again and strain through cheesecloth or Nylon mesh. If stored in refrigerator, it will separate, but may be stirred with a spoon before drinking. Do not store more than a day or two.
3.3.2 Coconut Milk Shake
Blend one cup coconut milk with one small banana and/or one tablespoon carob powder and/or several dates and/or two ounces sweet cherry or sweet grape juice. The juice adds an extra “fillip.” The amounts and combinations of ingredients depend on how sweet you like it.
Chestnuts are starchy protein, and are alkaline in metabolic reaction. They are usually “roasted,” but may be eaten raw if they are a nonbitter variety. To remove the thick skins, blanch in boiling water and let stand about two minutes. Remove a few at a time from the water and cool slightly, then peel with a paring knife. Roasting will also loosen the skins. Recipe for roasting chestnuts will be included in the lesson on cooked food recipes.
3.5.1 Finger Salads
Most vegetables may be served raw and as nearly whole as possible with no dressing as part of a “finger salad.” They should be washed immediately before serving.
These vegetables include, but are not limited to, all varieties of lettuce; celery; all varieties of cabbage; celery cabbage; cucumbers; carrots; sweet peppers and pimentos; tomatoes; Jerusalem artichokes; English peas; edible podded peas; young, tender green beans; broccoli florets and leaves; cauliflower; young turnips; young, tender beets; young, tender kale, collard or turnip greens; yellow crookneck squash; zucchini squash; sweet potatoes or yams; asparagus; young, tender sweet corn. A few vegetables are not particularly tasty when used uncooked, such as Brussels sprouts, eggplant, okra, globe artichokes and white potatoes, although some people do use these raw. White potatoes should not be eaten raw, but should be steamed or baked to dextrinize the starch.
Combine three to five vegetables as a salad for one meal.
3.5.2 Salad Dressings, Dips and Spreads
(Vegetables Combined with Nuts, Avocados, etc.)
If you must have salad dressing (get out of the habit as soon as possible), the following are better than bottled salad dressings or the use of vinegar.
- Blended tomatoes with avocado
- Blended tomatoes with cashew nuts (or other nuts or seeds)
- Avocado with diced cucumbers (Optional: add lemon juice or Vegebase)
- Yogurt or sour cream, Vegebase, diced cucumbers
- Yogurt or sour cream, avocado! Vegebase
- Avocado “butter”—(mashed avocado with optional lemon or lime juice)
- Equal parts of Vegebase and Oil
- Lemon and oil
Some of these dressings may also be used as dips or spreads (or guacamole—avocado dip).
3.6 Additional Recipes for Vegetables Combined with Nuts, Avocados, etc.
For this, use one or two large leaves of romaine lettuce, and choose from a variety of fillings:
Choose one of these:
Nuts (Ground or whole)
Seeds (Ground or whole)
Cheese (if you use it)
Combined with one or more of these:
Sweet Pepper Strips
Roll up the filling inside the lettuce leaves, wrapping it up. This may be eaten like a sandwich.
3.6.2 Individual Meal-in-One Salad Bowls
Medium-sized pieces of lettuce (two or three varieties)
Cut-up red cabbage
Sliced sweet red pepper or pimento
Choice of sliced young tender zucchini or other summer squash or a few broccoli florets
Choice of a few edible podded peas or young tender green peas or a few olives
Garnish with pignolia nuts and sunflower seeds and alfalfa sprouts or raw milk cheese slices and avocado slices and alfalfa sprouts.
Serve with Vegebase and oil dressing or cucumber sour cream dressing, if desired.
3.6.3 Coconut Treat
Combine optional amounts of:
(if desired, a few raisins may be added)
Moisten with coconut liquid or coconut milk (or yogurt, if you use it). This may be served with a large green salad and globe artichokes for a satisfying company meal.
3.6.4 Other Entertaining Salads
For entertaining, you might serve trays of finger salad with salad dressings on the side. Or serve large bowls of salad cut up as little as possible, with salad dressings on the side. Or serve celery sticks with dips.
3.7 Preparation of Salad Vegetables
Leaves of lettuce or other greens may be separated under running water, rinsing away as much of the sand and dirt as possible, assisted by your fingers. A quick dip in a sinkful of cold water and another quick rinse should clean up the sandiest leaves.
The more delicate buttercrunch lettuce varieties (Bibb, Boston) should be handled carefully and washed even more quickly to avoid losing crispness and nutrients.
Lettuce should never be soaked in plain or acidulated water. This will only extract the vitamins and make it limp and unappetizing.
Separate celery strips from the stalk, rinse under running water, dip in cold water, using brush at the same time to dislodge the dirt from the crevices. Another rinse should finish the job. Discard pithy or damaged portions.
Remove the tough outer leaves from cabbage and you will usually find a clean head underneath. Rinse the head if you like, and cut wedges for serving.
Remove celery cabbage strips as needed. A quick rinse and brushing will clean them up quickly.
Scrub cucumbers with a vegetable brush. Remove peeling, if waxed. I don’t use waxed cucumbers. Some supermarkets carry packages of “pickling cucumbers” all through the year—small, unwaxed cucumbers with small seeds. If they are fresh (and they often are), they taste like fresh-picked garden cucumbers, and the peel is tender and edible.
Scrub carrots with a brush—don’t peel. Small, young ones are best for salad. If you can find them with the tops still on, those are freshest. If you must shred your carrots, do it at the last possible minute.
Tomatoes—ah, tomatoes! When they are good, they are very, very good, and when they are bad they are horrid.
Hydroponic tomatoes? Thumbs down! Hothouse tomatoes? Not much better—sometimes barely acceptable. Deep red, vine-ripened tomatoes? Oh, yes! Wash them under running water, serve whole and enjoy!
If you must slice or quarter tomatoes, do so at the table, or at the last possible minute before serving.
Red or green sweet peppers (preferably ripe and red, which are the sweetest) and pimentos: wash under running water and cut in half to inspect condition. This is necessary, because deterioration may exist without outward signs. If deterioration has occurred, cut away ruthlessly, and use only firm, hard flesh.
Scrub Jerusalem artichokes or sweet potatoes (or yams) vigorously. Serve in small amounts in the salad. The artichokes are crisp and easy to eat. If you must shred the sweet potatoes, do it as close to eating time as possible.
Edible podded peas need only a quick washing. English peas: serve fresh young garden peas in the shell. If they are larger and from the supermarket, you may prefer to hull and cull them.
Broccoli and cauliflower florets need only a quick rinsing or dip in water and perhaps a little cleaning up with a sharp paring knife. The smaller broccoli leaves are also a bonus salad vegetable of high quality. The larger, tougher leaves require some steaming.
Small young turnips may be scrubbed and served whole—also, small young beets.
Small young green beans should be washed quickly and culled.
Asparagus should be rinsed, dipped and rinsed again to remove the sand.
Scrub yellow crookneck and zucchini squash lightly to avoid damage.
Strip husks and silk from young, tender sweet corn—you might use a tooth brush lightly. Rinse, and enjoy.
Raw mushrooms may be used in salads, but are not recommended because they pass through the digestive system unchanged. If used, wash by holding briefly under running water. If necessary, finish cleaning up with a sharp paring knife. Do not soak or peel.
- 1. Evaluation Of The Various Stages And Methods Of Preparation Of Uncooked Foods
- 2. Priority Of Food Preparation
- 3. Preparation Of Foods Without Cooking
- 4. The Sprouting Garden
- 5. Questions & Answers
- Article #1: Well, You Wanted To Know By V.V. Vetrano, B.S., D.C.
- Article #2: Some Fundamentals Of Food And Feeding By Ian Fowler
- Article #3: Vegetable Salads By Herbert M. Shelton
- Article #4: Hypoalkalinity By Herbert M. Shelton
- Article #5: Sprouts And Sprouting By H. Jay Dinshah
- Article #6: The Marvelous Avocado
Raw Food Explained: Life Science
Today only $37 (discounted from $197)