All the structural and physiologic changes in the uterus that occur during a female sexual cycle depend on the secretion of estrogens, chiefly estradiol and estrone.
Following the onset of puberty and menarche, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), secreted by the anterior pituitary, is responsible for the early maturation of ovarian follicles. Later in the menstrual cycle, a combination of FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) underlies final maturation of the ovum. Ovulation takes place following a sudden increase in pituitary secretion of LH.
Secretion of FSH and LH by the anterior pituitary are regulated by FSH-releasing factor and LH-releasing factor. These releasing factors originate in the hypothalamus and are transported directly to the pituitary via a specialized portal vascular system.
Circulating estrogens apparently act directly on the hypo-thalamus to inhibit secretion of FSH releasing factor by the pituitary, thus to decrease FSH secretion. In addition, the increase in circulating estrogens observed immediately prior to ovulation is responsible for producing the sudden rise in LH secretion that stimulates ovulation. Secretion of FSH and LH by the anterior pituitary is inhibited by the elevated levels of estrogen and progesterone in the circulation during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus the body maintains equilibrium.
3.1 Endometrial Changes During The Menstrual Cycle
Throughout each sexual cycle, the endometrium of the uterus exhibits a sequence of changes. These changes may be divided into three phases that relate to the functional state of the ovary.
Prolonged vasoconstriction of the coiled arteries results in a decreased blood flow to the superficial part of the endometrium lasting up to several hours. Secretion by the lands of the uterine mucosa ceases. Following about two ways of alternating vasoconstriction and vasodilation, the oiled arteries shut down, while blood flow is still mainlined in the basal vessels. Thus, the superficial region of the endometrium becomes highly ischemic (lack of blood in that area). After several hours, however, the constricted vessels open again for a short interval. The vessels that were deprived of oxygen near the surface rupture. Blood flow flows into the uterine lumen.
Ultimately, fragments of the endometrial tissue become detached from the surface, leaving the ruptured ends of the arteries, veins and glands open.
The deeper endometrial layer remains intact during menstruation, and even before vaginal discharge is complete, epithelial cells from the ends of the glands begin to move out. These rapidly generate a new surface ephithelium. The circulation is restored, and the follicular phase of the next cycle commences.
3.2 Menstrual Abnormalities
Extremely heavy flow, pain and cramps during the menstrual cycle is abnormal. These symptoms indicate toxicity and the need for a fast and general renovation of your lifestyle. A healthy individual should experience no pain during this time and a flow of short duration. Some Hygienists experience no flow at all and this is also considered normal. A sick individual could also experience absence of menstrual flow and this could be due to several reasons. Hormonal imbalances, extreme weakness and underweight (due to a state of toxicosis), trauma, etc., could result in cessation of menstruation. A fast and a change in lifestyle is in order in this case. After health has been restored, menstruation may or may not recommence. If it does, flow will be light and there should be no pain.
3.3 Premenstrual Tension
This condition occurs seven to ten days before menstruation and disappears a few hours after the onset of menstrual flow. It is characterized by nervousness, irritability, emotional instability, depression and may include headaches and edema. It seems to be related to fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone and to the fluid-retaining action of estrogen.
During some of his experiments with rats, Dr. Hans Seyle found that an excess of progesterone "acts very much like an excess of alcohol, ether and certain narcotics which tend to cause excitement followed by depression."
Other studies show that during the menstrual cycle, changes occur in carbohydrate metabolism, in adrenal production of corticosteroids, and in other functions. You can not pinpoint it to any one thing as the whole body is involved. Hygienic practitioners have found that these symptoms often disappear following a few short fasts and an improved lifestyle.
Home > Lesson 78 - Reproductive Problems Of Men And Woman
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